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2021-12-16 17:48:49 | onclick: | Doctor of agriculture on the important equipment for revealing the competition between rice and path

As the main food crop in China, the yield and quality of rice are threatened by a variety of pathogens. Among them, rice blast, as the "cancer" of rice, will reduce or even eliminate rice production. It is one of the most serious diseases in rice production.

Worldwide, the annual loss caused by rice blast is as high as 10% of the total rice yield. Different rice regions in China are prone to rice blast, and about 3 billion kilograms of rice are directly lost due to the incidence of rice blast every year.

At present, the use of chemical pesticides to control field diseases has caused serious environmental pollution and food safety problems. Therefore, excavating and cultivating new broad-spectrum and durable disease resistant varieties is the most economical, safe and effective method to control rice blast, and it is also an important guarantee to realize green ecological agriculture.

On December 16, 2021, Nature, an international top academic journal, published online the report entitled "NLRs guard metabolism to coordinate pattern - and effector triggered immunity" completed by he Zuhua research team of the center for excellence and innovation in molecular plant science, Chinese Academy of Sciences The research paper reveals a new plant basic immune metabolic regulation network, especially the biochemical pathway of defense metabolism "pici1 methionine ethylene". As an important "chemical equipment" in the competition between plants and pathogens, it plays a vital role in obtaining the "overall victory" of broad-spectrum disease resistance and endows rice with a new mechanism of broad-spectrum disease resistance.

Similar to animals, the immune system of plants is shaped by the long-term unremitting struggle with pathogens, mainly including two layers of immune system. Firstly, plants recognize pathogens through immune receptors on the surface of cell membrane, so as to activate the immune response. The immune response has broad-spectrum basic disease resistance, but the resistance level is low, which is not enough to be used as the target of disease resistance breeding, which is called basic disease resistance immune response (PTI).

Secondly, the immune receptor NLR in plant cells will trigger a new immune response by sensing the toxic proteins of pathogens. The immune response has a high level of disease resistance and can effectively control diseases. It is the main target of disease resistance breeding, but it often has the weakness of pathogen race specialization, PTI and ETI can promote each other and coordinate the defense response of plants.

NLR receptor gene plays an important role in crop broad-spectrum disease resistance breeding, and how to effectively analyze and apply NLR gene is the main technical bottleneck of crop disease resistance breeding. At the same time, it has been an important scientific problem in the field of plant pathology and crop breeding to explore how immune receptors, especially NLR receptors with broad-spectrum disease resistance, can obtain broad-spectrum disease resistance by enhancing plant defense metabolism in the "arms race" with pathogens.

The research team identified a new rice immune regulatory protein pici1 by comprehensively using experimental technology platforms such as plant pathology, molecular genetics, proteomics and biochemistry. It further reveals a new plant defense metabolic pathway - pici1, which can enhance the protein stability of methionine synthase, strengthen methionine synthesis and promote the biosynthesis of disease resistance hormone ethylene, Interestingly, the pathogen directly degrades pici1 by secreting toxic proteins to inhibit the basic disease resistance of rice and make it conducive to the invasion of pathogens.

It is found that the NLR receptor for broad-spectrum disease resistance produced by rice evolution can protect and strengthen the function of pici1 by inhibiting the interaction between pathogenic toxic protein and pici1, and then activate the synthesis of more defense chemicals (methionine ethylene) to obtain broad-spectrum disease resistance.

This is a typical research example of plant pathogen "arms race", and the defense metabolite "pici1 methionine ethylene", as an important "chemical equipment" in the competition between plants and pathogens, plays a vital role in the "overall victory" of plants in broad-spectrum disease resistance. In addition, by analyzing the genome data of 3000 rice varieties, the research team mined the excellent field disease resistance variation sites of pici1, which provided new ideas and targets for rice disease resistance breeding.

In recent years, with the global climate change, crop diseases broke out frequently. In order to obtain high and stable grain yield, a large number of pesticides are applied in agricultural production, which seriously affects the ecological environment and food safety. By strengthening the chemical defense and metabolism network of "nlrs-pici1-methionine-ethylene" in rice, it is expected to achieve the purpose of broad-spectrum and lasting resistance to rice blast, reduce the application of pesticides, and provide a new strategy for the sustainable development of agricultural production.

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